indian spices glossary

Indian Spices List with Pictures – Glossary of Indian Spices in 11 Indian Languages

India is the world’s largest producer and exporter of spices, and also the biggest domestic market for spices.

The total amount of spice exported by India in the year 2017-18 was a massive 1.08 billion kgs, valued at US$3.11 billion. These figures illustrate the importance of spice for the Indian economy and also Indian cuisines.

Spice is the very heart of Indian cuisine and every State in India has its own favorite mix of spices that define the taste of the various dishes that make up the cuisine of a particular State.

E.g. Kerala cuisine’s distinctive taste comes from the use of pepper, curry leaves, cardamom, clove and ginger. If you move east to Bengal, spices such as mustard seeds, fenugreek, turmeric and cumin seeds come into play.

Glossary of Indian Spices in 11 Indian Languages

Indian Spices Glossary - 11 Indian Languages

EnglishHindiGujaratiTeluguKannadaTamilMarathiPunjabiBengaliMalayalamUrdu
Alkanet Rootरातीं जोट rātīṃ (rātīn) joṭratan jotRatanJotuRatan JotKattamanakkuRatan JotLaljari, Koame, Maharanga, RatanjotRatanjotvebadatholiRatin Jot
Ani Seed/Fennel seedसौंफ/सुव्वा/शोप saunf/suvvā/śopVariyaliSopu, Pedda jilakaraBadisoppuPerumjeeragam, SombuBadishepBadi Saunf / ShathapushpaaPanmohuri / Mauri / MethePerum jeerakamSaunf, Sanchal
Asafoetidaहींग hiṃg (hing)HingInguva, IngumoHinger, InguPerungayamHingHingHingKayamHeeng
Red Chilliलाल मिर्च lāl mirchLal marchuEndu MirapakayaluVana MenasinakayiMilagai vathalLal Mirchi / MirchyaLal MirchPaka Lanka / Lal Mirch / Lankamorich
Chuvanna MulaguLalmirch
Basil SeedsTukmaria, SabjaTukmariyaBhutulsiKama Kasturi, SajjagidaTulasi vitaikalSabja, MarvaBaburitulasi bijaTirunitruSabjaa
Black cardamomकाली इलायची kāli ilāyachīelchoPeddayelakiDodda YelakkiKatu elam, Periya yalamMasalyachi velchi, Veldodekālī ilaicībaṛo elācaPerelam, Karutta elakkaBara elaichi, Purbi elaichi
White Pepperसफ़ेद मिर्च saphed mirchsafed mariTella MiriyaluBili MenasuVellai milaguPandri MiriSha-morichVella kurumulaguDakhni mirch, Safed Mirch
Black Pepperकाली मिर्च kālī mirchKali MariMiriyala tigeKari menasuMilaguMira, Kali mirchKali mirchGol MorichKurumulaku, NallamulakuKali mirch, Siah mirch
Peppercornsकाली मिर्च kālī mirchKali MariMiriyala tigeKari menasuMilaguMira, Kali mirch Kali mirchGol MorichKurumulaku, NallamulakuKali mirch, Siah mirch
Black Cuminशाही जीरा śāhī jīrākali jeeriNallajilakarraKari jirigeKarunjiragamKalonji biyaKala JiraKalo JeeraKarinjeeragam, Karuta jirakamKalonji
Capersकचरा/कब्र/करेर kacharā/kabr/karerkerdaMogga, Tella BurugaMarati MogguIlavu, Puulaa, MullilavuMarathi MogguKaur,Bararkakkathondi or cheru kareeram
Capsicumशिमला मिर्च śimalā mirchsimla marchapedda mirappadonne menasinakaikuda milagaiBhopli MirchiBasi Mirchsimla mirchparangi mulagu
CarawayShahi JeeraShahjeeraShahijeerashahjeeraShajeerasheema jeerakamShahi zeera
Celery / RadhuniSeedअज्मुद/अज्मोदा ajmud/ajmodāajmoAkukurala vittanaluAchu-MoodaAjmodaAjmodaCharoliParsleyAyamodakamSeleri, Amod 
Charoliचिरोंजी chiroṃjī (chironjī)charolicharumamidikole maavucharamCharolitej patachironji, piyal, saropnuramaramchironji
Indian Bay Leaf, Bay Leafतेज पत्ता tej pattāTamal PattaBiryani AkkuBiryani EleBrinji IlaiTamaal Patratej patatejpataKaruva PattaTez Paat
Cinnamon Budsनाग केशर nāg keśarnag kesar,lavingKesaramu, NagashappuNagasampigeCharu-Nagapu, Nagappu, SirunagappooNagkeshara,Nagchampanaga kesarnagesarnagachempakam,velluttachembagamNaremushk
Cinnamonदालचीनी dālachīnīTujDasina ChekkaLavangapattaiKaruvapattai, IlavangappattaiDalchiniDalchiniDaroochini / DaalchiniKaruvapattaDarchini
Citric Acidनिंबू फूल niṃbū phūlLimbo na Phoolnimma uppuNimbe UppuCiṭrik amilamNimboo sat,Tartri
Clovesलवंग/लौंग lavaṃg (lavang) / lauṃg (laung)LavingLavangaluLavangaKirambu, LavangamLuvangLong / Lavang / Laung
Labango / LawangGrambuLaung
CorianderPowderधनिया पाउडर / पिसा धनिया dhaniyā pāuḍar / pisā dhaniyāDhana / Dhaniya / Kothmiri / LibdhabaDhaniyaluKottambari Beeja / HaveejaMalli podiDhane / KothimirDhaniyaDhonay / DhaniyaMalli podiDhania
CorianderSeedधनिया dhaniyāDhanaDaniyaluKothambari KaluKothamalli vidhaiDhane / KothimirDhaniya
Dhonay / DhaniyaMalliDhania
Cubebकबाब चीनी kabāb chīnīChanakabab, ChinikababTokarmiriyaluBalamenasu, Gandha menasuValmilagu, Thippili, SinamilaguGol Mirchi,Mothi, PimpliKabab CheeniKahabcbini, SugandhamarichaThippaliKebab Cheeni
Cumin Seed ground into ballsज़ीरा गोली zīrā (jīrā) golījira godiJeera
Cumin Seedज़ीरा zīrā (jīrā)JeeruJidakara, JikakaJeerigeJeeragamJeregireJeeraJeereyJeeragamZeera
Curry Tree or Sweet NeemLeafकरीपत्ता / कढ़ीपत्ता karīpattā/kaḍhīpattāMitho Limdokarivepaku,karepakukaribevu,baisoppu,karibevina soppuKaruveppilaikadhi patta,karhinimb,poospala,gandhlakadippattabarsanga,kariphulliKaruveppilaKari Patta. Karia Path
Fennel Seedसौंफ / संचल sauṃph (saunph)/saṃchal (sanchal)Variari / WarjariSompu, SopuDodda SompuPerunjeeragam / Shombei / SathakuppaiSaunf / BadishepBadi Saunf / ShathapushpaaPanmohuri / Mauri / MethePerum JeerakamSaunf/Sanchal
FenugreekLeaf Dryकसूरी मेथी kasūrī methīkasuri methiMenthikoraVenthiya Keerakasuri methiMethi Sagkasuri methi
FenugreekLeafमेथी पत्ता methī pattāmathi bhajiMenthkooraMenthina SoppuVenthiya KeeraiMethiMethiMethi Sag / Kasuri MethiUluva IlaMethi Sag
FenugreekSeedमेथी दाना methī dānāmethi danaMenthulumentheVendayammethimethMethi Sag / Kasuri Methiuluvamethi, Shanbalid
Four Seedsतरबूज खरबूज ककडी पैंठे के बीज tarabūj kharabūj kakaḍī pauṃṭhe ke bījmagajtari na bijMenthuluchaar magazchaar magaz
Garcinia gummi-guttaGorakagaram masalamalabaru kayaUppage, KattchapuliPanampulli, Vadakkan puliKodampuli, Kudampuli
Garam Masalaगरम मसाला garam masālākokam,ratamba,kokambel,birandelgaram masalagaram masalaGaram masala
Garcinia indicaकोकम kokamLasanchintaBrinda, Punarpulimurgal,pullikokamKokam
mahadaponampilliKokum
Garlicलहसुन lahasunAaduVellulli / Velluri / Ullipayilu / Vellipaaya / Tellapaayalu / Velluli PayaluBeluuliPoondu / VellaipoonduLasun / LussonLassan / LahsunRasoon / RashunVeluthulli / VellulliLassun / Leshun
Gingerअदरक adarakSunthAllamAllaIngiAaleAdrakAdaInjiAdrak / Adhrak
Dried Gingerसोंठ soṃṭh (sonṭh)Ambala / AmlaSonthiShunti, ArdrakaSukkuSunthAdarakSonthChukkuSonth
Green cardamomछोटी इलाइची chhoṭī ilāichīElaychiChina ElakkuluSana ElakkiElakkaiWelchiElaichiElach / GarateElakkaiIlaychi / Elaisi
Indian Bedellium Treeगुगल/गु्ग्गल gugal/guggalGugal, Guggal, GugarGuggipannuKanthagana, GugguluMahisaksi, GuggaluGuggul, MahishakshGuggalGuggulaGulgulu, GuggaluMuqil (Shihappu)
Indian Gooseberryआँवला āṃvalāAmbala / AmlaUsiri / UsirikayiNellikaiNellikaiAwalahAmlaAmlaki / AmlaNellikkaAmla
Jakhyatikatik kharapatavaarpili talvanikukkavavinta,svasabarbaranayibelanaikkadukupivala tilavaninaivelahulhul
Black Saltकाला नमक / संचल kālā namak / saṃchal (sanchal)SancharNalla UppuKari UppuKaru UppuSaindhav MeethKālā lūṇaBiit lobonKarutha UppuSulemani namak
Kalpasiपत्थर के फूल patthar ke phūl
Licorice Powderजेठीमध jeṭhīmadhjetimadh,mulethiYsahtimadhukamJeshtamadhuatimadhurammulhathimalaṭhijoshtimodhuIrattimathuram,VayambuMulethi
Long Pepperपिप्पलि pippaliPipariTippili, PippalluHippali, Hippalibali, KunaTippili, Sirimulam, VanapippiliPimplimagan, pipalipipul,pipilTippaliFilfil daraz, Pipul
Mango Extractकामिकी kāmikī
Sour Dried Mango Powderआमचूर / अमचुर āmachūr/amachurAamchurMamidikaya PudiMavinakai PudiMangai PodiAamchur, ambaAmchurAmchur
Manga PodiAmchoor
Mintपुदीना 'pudīnāFudino / PhodinaPudhina KooraPudina Sopu / Chetni MaraguPudinaPudinaHara PudinaPoodina PathaPudhinaaPudina
Mustard Seedसरसों sarasoṃRaiAvaluSasuve / KarisasiveKaduguMohoriRai / Banarasi Rai / Kalee SarsonSarsay / Shorshe / RaiKaduguRai, Banarasi Rai, Kalee Sarson
Brown mustard Seedराई rāīRai, RaidoAvaluSasuve / KarisasiveKaduguMohoriRai / Banarasi Rai / Kale SarsonSarsay / Shorshe / RaiKaduguRai, Banarasi Rai, Kalee Sarson
Nigella Seedकलोंजी kaloṃjī (kalomjī)Nalla vittanaluKrishna jeerigeKaruppu yelkalo jira
karinjirakam
Nutmegजैफल / जायफल jaiphal/jāyaphalJaifalJajikayaJakayiJathikaiJayphal
JaiphalJaiphalJathikkaJaiphal
Maceजावित्री jāvitrīJaypatriJapathri, Jajikaya PathriJapatri / JayithreeJaadipathriJaypatriJavitriJaeetriJathipathriJavitri
Onion SeedsKalonjikalanjiNalla vittanaluKrishna jeerigeKaruppu yelkalonjikalonjikalo jirakarinjirakamkalonji
Holy Basilतुलसी tulasīTulsina PanThulasi / Tulsi-ChettuTulasi / Amli / HuliThulasi / TirunirrippachaiTulsichi / Sabja / TulasaImli / Tulasigidda / TulasiBabui TulsiTulasi / SivatulasiTulsi
Panch Phoronपञ्च फोरन pañch phoranpãch phoṛon
ParsleyAjmoda Ka PattaAjma na panKothimeera JatiKottambari Jothiya SoppuKothamalu Ilaigal PoleAjmodaParsleySeema MalliJafari
Pomegranate Seedअनारदाना anārdānāDadamna / DalambDanimma Pandu / DalimbaDalimbo / Dalimbari / Daalimbae HannuMathalam vidhaiDalimbache / DalimbAnar / AnardanaDareem / Dalim-Gash / DalimMadhalanaranga / Maathalanarakam / Uriyan PazhamAnardana
Poppy Seedखस-खस khas-khasKhaskhasGasagasaalu / KasakasaGasagase Beeja / Kasa KaseKasa kasaKhaskhas / Khus KhusKhus Khus / Khas / PostPosto / Kashash / Afing Kaskas / KashakashaKashkash Sufaid
Fresh Hemp Cannabisभांग Bhangbhang
Saffron Pulpकेसर मिरी मिरी kesar mirī mirīkeśar lagadā
Saffronकेसर / जाफरान kesar/jāpharānkesarKukumpoovuKumnkuma Kesari / KesariKungumapooKeshar / KesaraKesar / ZafranZafranKumkumapoovu / KesariZafran
Saltनमक namakmithuUppuUppuUppuMithlūṇLaban / NooneUppuNamak
Sesame Seedतिल tiltalnuvvuluElluEllutiillTila bījatilelluTil
Star Aniseचक्र फूल / बदल फुल chakra phūl/badal phulbadiyaAnasa PuvuAnasi HovvuAnnachi mokkuBadianChakro Phool / GuamouriTakkolamBadyani
Tamarindइमली imalīAmbliChinthapanduHunase Hannu / HuliPuliCinchImliTentoolPuli / Valan PuliImli
Carom/thymol seedअज़वाइन azvāinajmoWamu, VamuAjwainOmamowaajvaneJowanayamodakaṃAjwain
Turmericहल्दी haldīHaladarPasupuArasinaManjalHaladHaldar / HaldiHalud / PitrasManjalHaldi
Fresh basilतुलसी tulasīTulsina PanThulasi / Tulsi-ChettuTulasi / Amli / HuliThulasi / TirunirrippachaiTulsichi / Sabja / TulasaTulasigidda / TulasiBabui TulsiTulasi / Sivatulasitalsi ki pati
Fresh Corianderहरा धनिया harā dhaniyāKothmari/KothmirKothimeera / Kothamalli KoorakuKottambari SoppuKothamalli thalaiKothimbirHara DhaniaDhonay PathaKothamalli Ila / Malli Iladhaniya
Green Chili Pepperहरी मिर्च harī mirchMarchaPatchimirapa / Pachchi MirapakayaluHasi MenasinakaiPachchii MilagaiPachchai MilagaiMirchanKancha LankaPachamulaguHari Mirch
Gum Tragacanthकटीरा गोंद kaṭīrā goṃd (gond)gond, gundarDinkaGondKatilaGond Katira
Inknut Terminalia chebulaहरद haradharitakiKarakkaiAlalekaayiKadukkaiHirda, Haritaki, HaradeHarHoritakiKadukka Chhoti Har
Dried Red Chili Pepperलाल मिर्च lāl mirchSuku marchuEndu MirapakayaluVana Menasinakayi
MilagaiLal MirchaLal MirchLal MirchChuvanna MulakuLal Mirch
Stone Flower (Rock Flower)Pathar ka phooldagad na phoolRaathi PoothaKalu HuvvuKalpaasidagad phoolDagar da Phoolpathar er phoolBadal Poove, Celeyam, KalpuvuRiham karmani

Types of Spices in India

Spices in India play a two-fold role.

They determine the distinctive, delicious taste of Indian cuisine and at the same time play a medicinal role as well. There is no doubt that Indian food is one of the most aromatic, and flavorful food in the world, and this is because of all the magic that Indian spices are working on the food.

There are two types of spices used in Indian food:

  • Ground Spices: the powdered form of the spice seed, root or bark (typically spices are ground after they are dried for a sufficient period of time).
  • Whole Spices: Spice in its original form, fresh or dried, typically the bark, fruit, buds, stem etc. of plants and trees.

E.g. all forms of turmeric, fresh, dried and ground, are used in Indian cuisine. Most spices in India can be used either in their ground or whole forms and in either case, they give a whole new flavor to the dish.

The Medicinal Role of Spices

In Indian households, spices are also used to cure seasonal ailments. One of the reasons a particular spice finds its way into a dish is because of its medicinal nature. Or, a new dish can be created just to infuse it with the spice with specific medicinal properties.

One of the dishes that is popularly eaten (drunk) in this case, in winters in India, is warm milk infused with turmeric. This spice has anti-inflammation properties and therefore is a natural cure for sore throat. It also improves the immunity of your body.

Some households add a dash of curry leaves to their food or just make a plain curry leaves chutney; this spice is a great source of carbohydrates and minerals, which aid digestion, are good for eyesight and can provide relief from morning sickness.

These are just a few examples that showcase the medicinal properties of Indian spices and how they are used in Indian dishes, but pick any spice and it brings a range of medicinal benefits to the table.

Mothers, housewives and grandmothers are especially great at making good use of spices to not only make a tasty dish but also the kind of dish that includes certain spices with medicinal properties.

Conclusion

Yes, spices give Indian foods the delicious flavor it is known for, but they also have medicinal properties.

These spices are grown across the Indian sub-continent; primarily the Southern States of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Karnataka make up the bulk of spice production in India.

While Indian spices are used by chefs across the world, there is no doubt that it is Indian chefs/cooks know just the right mix of spices that can take a particular dish to the next level.

 
Summary
Indian Spices List with Pictures - Glossary of Indian Spices in 11 Indian Languages
Article Name
Indian Spices List with Pictures - Glossary of Indian Spices in 11 Indian Languages
Description
This glossary lists all the Indian spices in 11 languages English, Hindi, Gujarati, Telugu, Kannada, Tamil, Marathi, Punjabi, Bengali, Malayalam, Urdu.
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